Author Topic: Coral Castle/Edward Leedskalnin  (Read 110 times)

anders

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 1.548
    • View Profile
Coral Castle/Edward Leedskalnin
« on: July 11, 2016, 11:15:07 am »
______________________________________________________________________________
|  File Name      : MAGCURNT.ASC     |  Online Date     :  09/19/95          |
|  Contributed by : Kenny Morrow     |  Dir Category    :  ENERGY            |
|  From           : KeelyNet BBS     |  DataLine        :  (214) 324-3501    |
|           KeelyNet * PO BOX 870716 * Mesquite, Texas * USA * 75187         |
|        A FREE Alternative Sciences BBS sponsored by Vanguard Sciences      |
|              InterNet email keelynet@ix.netcom.com (Jerry Decker)          |
|      Files also available at Bill Beaty's http://www.eskimo.com/~billb     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Kenny Morrow
Bath, Pa. 18014

Re: EDWARD LEEDSKALNIN
Builder of Coral Castle near Homestead, Fla.

Attached is EDWARD LEEDSKALNIN's book MAGNETIC CURRENT.

I don't know who holds Ed Leedskalnin's 1945 copyright, but I copied it
without permission.  If you see any legal problems with this then please
delete all these files as I don't need any hassles.

I called these three files MAGCURNT.TXT,  MAGCUR2.TXT and MAGCUR3.TXT.  They
are associated with KeelyNet files LEED1.ASC and LEED2.ASC.

Enjoy and if you have any other information on Ed Leedskalnin I would
appreciate it.  I saw the "In Search Of..." episode of what I think was called
"Castle of Secrets" on the A&E Network and was fascinated.

This is my first attempt at uploading anything to the KeelyNet, so please let
me know if it was received and if the format is OK. I did send this to Clark
Matthew's "Wrong#" BBS which is the closest to me.

                                                                 Thanks,
                                                                 Kenny
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MAGNETIC CURRENT
By EDWARD LEEDSKALNIN
                                   ROCK GATE
                         Homestead, Florida,  U. S. A.
                Copyright October. 1945. by Edward Leedskalnin

This writing is lined up so when you read it you look East, and all the
description you will read about magnetic current, it will be just as good for
your electricity.

Following is the result of my two years experiment with magnets at Rock Gate,
seventeen miles Southwest from Miami, Florida.  Between Twenty-fifth and
Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty-first Longitude West.

First I will describe what a magnet is. You have seen straight bar magnets, U
shape magnets, sphere or ball magnets and Alnico magnets in many shapes, and
usually a hole in the middle. In all magnets one end of the metal is North
Pole and the other South Pole, and those which have no end one side is North
Pole and the other South Pole.

Now about the sphere magnet. if you have a strong magnet you can change the
poles in the sphere in any side you want or take the poles out so the sphere
will not be a magnet any more.  From this you can see that the magnet can be
shifted and concentrated and also you can see that the metal is not the real
magnet. The real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal.

Each particle in the substance is an individual magnet by itself, and both
North and South Pole individual magnets. They are so small that they can pass
through anything.. In fact they can pass through metal easier than through the
air. They are in constant motion, they are running one kind of magnets against
the other kind, and if guided in the right channels they possess perpetual
power. The North and South Pole magnets they ore cosmic force, they hold
together this earth and everything on it. Each North and South Pole magnet is
equal in strength, but the strength of each individual magnet doesn't amount
to anything. To be of practical use they will have to be in great numbers.

In permanent magnets they are circulating in the metal in great numbers, and
they circulate in the following way: Each kind of the magnets are coming out
of their own end of the pole and are running around, and are running in the
other end of the pole and back to its own end, and then over and over again.
All the individual magnets do not run around. Some run away and never come
back, but new ones take their place.

The earth itself is a great big magnet. In general these North and South Pole
individual magnets are circulating in the same way as in the permanent magnet
metal. The North Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's South
Pole and are running around in the earth's North Pole and back to its own
pole, and South Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North
Pole and are running around, and in earth South Pole and back to its own end.
Then both North and South Pole individual magnets start to run over and over
again.

In a permanent magnet bar between the poles there is a semi-neutral part where
there is not much going in or out, but on the earth there is no place where
the magnets are not going in or out, but the magnets are running in and out at
pole ends more than at the Equator. Now you get the equipment and I will tell
you so you can see for yourself that it is in the way I have told, Get a
permanent magnet bar four inches long. A U shape magnet that is strong enough
to lift from ten to twenty pounds. An Alnico magnet about three inches long,
two and one-half inches wide, one-inch thick, Hole in the middle and poles in
each end, several feet in length of hard steel fishing line. Line when it is
not in coil it stays straight and a soft steel welding rod one-eighth of an
inch thick and three feet long. From the fishing wire and the welding rod
you will make magnets or compasses, and if you hang them up in fine threads by
middle and keep them there they will be permanent magnets.

When you are making a magnet pole in the welding rod use U shape magnet. South
Pole magnet to make North Pole magnet in the rod and use U shape North Pole
magnet to make South Pole magnet in the rod. You can drag the magnet over the
rod from end to end, but never stop in middle. If you stop in middle there
will be an extra pole so it will disturb the magnet's circulation.  Use iron
filings to test the rod if there is any magnets in the middle, and if there is
the filings will cling to it. Then drag the permanent magnet over the rod and
it will take it out. To take the magnet out from rod ends approach or touch
the rod end with the same kind of magnet that is in the rod, by dipping the
rod ends in iron filings, you will see how it works.

Break three pieces of the steel fishing line just long enough to go in between
the two poles of U shape permanent magnet. Put them endwise between the two
poles, and take them out. Hang one by middle with fine thread, and hang it up
in East side of the room where there is no other magnet or metal around. Now
you will have a permanent magnet or compass to test the polarity in other
magnets. For more delicate use hang the magnet in spider web. To test the
strength of a magnet use iron filings.

Put the U shape permanent magnet two feet West from the hanging magnet. Hold
the North Pole magnet in `level with the hanging magnet, then you will see
that the South pole of the hanging magnet is turning to you and the North Pole
magnet away from you. Now put the South Pole permanent magnet pole in the
same level, this time North Pole magnet will turn to you and South Pole magnet
away from you. This experiment shows two things, one that the magnets can he
sent out in straight streams, and the other whatever kind of magnets you are
sending out the other kind of magnets are coming back to you.

Take two pieces of steel fishing line wire, put them in U shape magnet, hold a
little while, take them out, bend a little back in one end and hang them up,
and make it so that one magnet's lower end is North Pole magnet and the other
South Pole magnet - Make it so that they hang three inches apart. Put North
Pole North side, and South Pole South side. Now take the four-inch long perma-
nent magnet bar, hold North Pole in North side and South Pole in South side.

Raise slowly up to the two hanging magnets, then you will see that the hanging
magnets are closing up. Now reverse, put North Pole of bar magnet South side
and South Pole North side. This time when bar magnet approaches the hanging
magnets will spread out. This experiment shows that North and South Pole
magnets are equal in strength and that the streams of individual magnets are
running one kind of magnets against the other kind.

Cut a strip of a tin can about two inches wide and a foot long.  Put the North
Pole of the U shape magnet on top of the strip, and dip the lower end in iron
filings, and see how much it lifts. Now put the South Pole on top and see how
much it lifts. Change several times, then you will see that the North Pole
lifts more than the South Pole Now put the North Pole magnet under the iron
filing box, and see how much it pushes up. Now change. put South Pole magnet
under the box and see how much it pushes up.

Do this several times, then you will see that the South Pole magnet pushes up
more than North Pole magnet.  This experiment shows again that on level ground
the magnets are in equal strength.

Now take the three-foot long soft steel welding rod. It is already magnetized
as a permanent magnet. hang it in a fine thread so it is in level. Now measure
each and you will see that the South end is longer. In my location at Rock
Gate, between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty-
first Longitude West, in three-foot long magnet the South Pole end is about
a sixteenth of an inch longer. Farther North it should be longer yet, but at
Equator both ends of the magnet should be equal in length. In earth's South
hemisphere the North Pole end of magnet should be longer.

All my hanging magnets or compasses they never point to the earth's magnetic
pole, neither to the geographical pole. They point a little Northeast. The
only reason I can figure out why they point in that way is, looking from the
same geographical meridian the North magnetic pole is on, the South magnetic
pole is one hundred and fifteen longitudes West from it. In rough estimation
the earth's South magnetic pole is two hundred and sixty miles West from the
same meridian the earth's North magnetic pole is on. That causes the North and
South Pole magnets to run in Northeast and Southwest direction My location is
too far away from the magnetic poles so all my magnets are guided by the
general stream of individual North and South Pole magnets that are passing by.

Now I will tell you what magnetic current is. Magnetic current is the same as
electric current is a wrong expression. Really it is not one current, they are
two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in
concentrated streams and the other is composed of South Pole individual
magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the
other stream in whirling, screwlike fashion, and with high speed.  One current
alone if it be North Pole magnet current or South Pole magnet current it
cannot run alone. To run one current will have to run against the other.

Now I will tell you how the currents are running when they come out of a car
battery, and what they can do. Now get the equipment. First put a wooden box
on floor, open side up, cut two notches in middle so you can put a one-eigth
of an inch thick and eighteen-inch long copper wire across the box. Put the
wire one end East, the other West. Stay yourself West, put car battery South
side of the box positive terminal East, negative terminal West, get two
flexible leads and four clips to fit the battery and the bare copper wire,
connect the East end of the copper wire with positive terminal, clip the West
end of the copper wire with the West side flexible lead, leave the connection
with negative terminal open.

Break two pieces of the steel fishing line one inch long, put each piece by
middle across the copper wire, one on top of the copper wire and the other
under, hold with your fingers, now touch the negative terminal with the loose
clip, hold until the copper wire gets hot.  Take them off, now you have two
magnets, hang them up by middle in fine thread. The upper magnet will hang
the way it is now, but the one below will turn around. Break five inches long
piece of the fishing line, put the middle of the wire across and on top of the
copper wire, touch the battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot, dip the
middle of the wire in iron filings, then you will see how long a magnet can be
made with this equipment.

Break or cut several pieces of the hard steel fishing wire as long as to go
between the poles of the U shape magnet, now hold two pieces of the steel wire
ends up and down, one wire South side of the copper wire, and the other North
side, the lower ends just below the copper wire. Hold tight and touch the
battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot, now hang them up by upper end
just above the copper wire, touch battery, the South side magnet will swing
South, and the North side magnet will swing North. Put two pieces on top of
the copper wire, the ends just a little over the copper wire.  Those ends
lying on copper wire, one pointing South and the other North, hold tight,
touch battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot. take off the one pointing
South is South Pole magnet and the one pointing North is North pole magnet.
Put one wire on top of the copper wire pointing South, other below pointing
North. Magnetize, hang up by tail ends on the copper wire, touch battery they
both will swing South. Put one wire on top of the copper wire pointing North,
the other below pointing South, magnetize, hang up by tail end above the
copper wire, touch the battery, both magnets will swing North.

Cut six pieces of fishing wire one inch long, put them by middle on top and
across the copper wire.  Hold tight, touch battery, hold until copper wire
gets hot. Take off, now put glass over the copper wire, put those six pieces
of magnets on glass, on top of the copper wire lengthwise just so the ends
don't touch each other, touch the battery, they all will turn across the
copper wire, now pull three to South side and three to North side in the same
way, they lie now but about one-half of an inch away from the copper wire,
touch battery, they all will jump on the copper wire. Now roll all six
together, let loose, and you will see that they won't stay together.

Magnetize one piece in U shape magnet, put North Pole end East on the copper
wire, and South Pole West, touch the battery, the magnet will swing left.  Now
put South Pole East side and North Pole West side, this time the magnet will
turn right, take glass off.

Take one piece of hard steel fishing wire, dip in iron filings and see there
is no magnet in it. This time hold the wire up, and down, the lower end on
middle of the copper wire, hold tight.  Touch the battery, hold until the
copper wire gets hot. Take it off.

Dip the wire in iron filings and you will see that it is no magnet.  Why? To
make magnets with currents from batteries and dynamos with a single wire the
metal will have to be put on the wire in such a way so that the magnets which
are coming out of the wire will be running in the metal starting from the
middle of the metal and run to the end and not from end to middle and across
as they did this last time. You have read that to make a South Pole in a coil
end that is pointing to you, you will have to run positive electricity in the
coil in clockwise direction. I can tell you that the positive electricity has
nothing to do with making a South magnet pole in the coil. Each pole South or
North is made by their own magnets in the way they are running in the wire.
This magnet-making with a single wire, it illustrates how all magnets are
made.

In a car battery the North Pole magnets run out of positive terminal and South
Pole magnets run out of negative terminal. Both kinds of magnets are running,
one kind of magnets against the other kind, and are running in the same right-
hand screw fashion.  By using the same whirling motion and running one kind of
magnets against the other kind, they throw their own magnets from the wire in
opposite directions. That is why if you put a magnet metal across the copper
wire the one end is North Pole and the other end South Pole.

Get four pieces of wire size sixteen, six inches long, two copper and two soft
iron, bend one end of each wire back so the clips can hold it better. Use
copper wire first. Put both wires in clips, connect with battery, have the
wire ends square, now put the loose ends together, and pull them away. Then
you will notice that something is holding you back. What is it? They are
magnets.

When you put the ends together, the North and South Pole magnets are passing
from one wire to the other, and in doing it they pull the wire ends together.
Now put the soft iron wire in the clips, put the loose ends together, and pull
them away. This time the passing magnets hold the wire ends together stronger.
Put the ends together many times, then you `will see which wire end gets red
first, and which will make the bigger bubble in the end, and watch the little
sparks coming out from the bubbles.

Stretch the bubbles out while they are in liquid form, then you will see in
the bubble that something is whirling around. Those little sparks you see
coming out of the bubble, they are not the magnets, but the magnets are the
ones which throw the sparks out of the bubbles.

When all the magnets that are in the wire, if they cannot pass over to the
other wire, they ore expending the bubble and running out of it and carrying
the metal sparks with them. When the bubble is cool, break it up, then you
will see the space left where the magnets were in.

Get two pieces of lumber, one by six inches, a foot long, nail them together
so that one lies flat on floor and the other on top the edges up and down. Out
a notch in end in upper piece, four inches deep and as high as to hold a piece
of wood or brass that would hold needle points in ends and have a hole in
middle to hold the three-foot magnet. Balance the magnet good so it would stop
on its right magnetic position. Now put the car battery South side positive
terminal East and negative terminal West.

Connect the East end of the copper wire with positive terminal and connect the
West end of the copper wire with the West side lead, hold the copper wire just
above the magnet a quarter of an inch North of magnet's end, hold in level and
square. Touch the battery, then you will see the magnet swinging East. Now put
the' battery North side, positive terminal East, negative terminal West,
connect West end of the copper wire with negative terminal, connect East end
of copper wire with East side lead. put the copper wire on top of the magnet a
quarter of an inch South of magnet's end, hold the copper wire just above in
square and level, touch the positive terminal, then you will see the magnet
swinging West. If the battery is right, magnet strong enough, and the magnet
rod balanced good it will repeat the same thing every time.

I think the batteries are not made right. Sometimes there is more of North
Pole magnets than there is South Pole magnets.  They should be equal. the same
as from generators which do not run the South Pole magnets in frame or base,
but run directly away the same as they run the North Pole magnets.

From the following experiment you will see that the battery is not balanced
right. Put the copper wire across the box, one end East, the other end West,
connect one lead a foot West from East end and the other lead with West end,
hang a magnet in spider web, put the magnet in same level with the copper
wire. Keep the copper wire end a little away from magnet's North Pole, con-
nect East lead with positive terminal, tap the negative terminal several times
with the loose clip. and see what the magnet is doing. Change the terminal,
change the tapping, move the box and copper wire to the South Pole end, repeat
- the same thing.  Then you will notice sometimes the copper wire end pushes
away the North Pole magnet, and sometimes it pulls it in and the same thing
happens with South Pole magnet, and sometimes it does nothing. So it shows the
battery is irregular.

Connect the leads with battery's terminals to make a loop, keep the leads on
the same level with battery, drag a hanging magnet over the loop and the
connections between the battery's terminals. You will see that one end of the
magnet keeps inside the loop, and the other outside, and the same thing
happens when the magnet crosses the connection between the terminals. This
experiment indicates that the North and South Pole magnet currents we not only
running from one terminal to the other, but are running around in an orbit and
are not only running one time around, but are running many times wound until
the North and South Pole individual magnets get thrown out of the wire by cen-
trifugal force, and by crowding. While the North and South Pole magnets were
in their own terminals they only possessed pushing power, the pulling power
they acquire only if the other kind of magnets are in front of them, like the
permanent magnets if you put the opposite magnet in front of it, then they
will hold together The same way you have done with the six inches long pieces
of copper and soft iron wire.

From the experiment with the car battery you can see the principle how
permanent magnets are made by North and South Pole individual magnet currents
running in a single wire from battery. How did the magnets get in there? As I
said in the beginning. the North and South Pole magnets they are the cosmic
force, they hold together this earth and everything on it. Some metals and
non-metals hove more of the magnets than others. The North and South Pole
magnets have the power to build up and take down, for instance in welding the
magnets take the Welding rod down and put it on the welding, in electroplating
they put one metal on the other, and if you burn a metal too much in an
electric furnace the metal will disappear in air.

The North and South Pole magnets were put in the car battery by a generator.
When the North and South Pole magnets went in the battery they built up a
charge that held the magnets themselves.  Later on the acid takes the matter
in parts and separates the magnets and sends them to their own terminals, and
from there they come out. In other batteries the acid takes the zinc in parts
and sends the North Pole magnets to positive terminal and holds the South Pole
magnets by itself for negative terminal. When the connections are made the
magnets will come out of the battery and will come out until the zinc will
last. When the zinc is gone the magnets are gone, too. The same is true if you
put iron in acid and some other metals, for the other terminal and when the
connections are made the magnets will come out of the battery, but when the
iron is gone the magnets are gone, too. This should be sufficient to see that
the North and South Pole magnets are holding together everything. You saw how
magnetic currents are made in battery from metal by acid. Next I will tell you
how magnetic currents are made by permanent and electric magnets, and then
without either.

This time you will make an equipment that can he used for four purposes.
Electric magnet, transformer, generator and holder of perpetual motion. Bend
iron or soft steel bar one and one half inch in diameter, bend in a U shape
each prong a foot long, and three inches between the prongs, make two spools
from brass or aluminum six inches long and big enough for the bar to go in.
Wind fifteen hundred turns of insulated copper wire, size sixteen, on each
spool. Put on as close to the bend as it will go. Connect the battery with the
coils so that each current is running in both coils at the same time, and so
that one end of the bar is North Pole and the other South Pole. Now you have
an electric magnet.

This time the same thing will be a transformer. It will not be economical, it
is only to show how a transformer works. Wind a coil of fifteen hundred turns
with insulated copper wire, size eighteen, on a spool less than three inches
long, so that one inch and a half square iron rod can go in easy, get two
rods, one three, the other six inches long. If possible have them from
laminated iron. Get two radio blue bead, six to eight-volt light bulbs. Now
connect one light bulb with the three-inch coil, put the coil without a core
between the loose ends of the iron prongs, connect the six-inch coils with
battery, leave negative terminal open. Tap the negative terminal, then you
will see the wire inside the light bulb turn red. Put iron core in the coil's
hole, tap the battery, this time it will make light. Why did it not make just
as much light the first time? The battery put just as much magnet in those
iron prongs the first time as it did the last time, but as you see the coil
did not get the magnets. Now you see the soft iron has a lot to do to make
magnetic currents.

Magnetic currents, or if you want to call it electric current, make no light.
We only get light if we put obstructions in the light bulbs. In the light
bulbs the wire is so small that all magnets cannot pass through easily, so
they heat the wire up and burn and make light. If the wire in the light bulb
had been as large inside as it is outside then there would be no light. Then
those individual magnets which are in the coil would dissipate in air.

Both North and South Pole individual magnet currents which came out of the car
battery and went in the transformer were direct currents. but the light in the
bulb was caused by alternating currents. (Have in mind that always there are
two currents, one current alone cannot run. To run they have to run one
against the other.) You transformed currents in kind. Now I will tell you
how to transform currents in strength. To make higher voltage you wind the
coil with smaller wire and more turns and to have less voltage wind the coil
with bigger wire and less turns. The difference now is that this transformer
makes alternating currents from direct currents and the power line
transformers use alternating currents to make alternating currents in this
transformer, the iron prong ends remain the same magnet pole, but in power
line transformers the magnet poles alternate. In power line transformers
the currents only are in motion and in this transformer the currents are in
motion and you are, too.

Now about the generator. In the first place all currents are alternating. To
get direct currents we have to use a commutator.  Transformers and generators
of any description are making the currents in the same way by filling the
coil's iron core with magnets and letting the iron core push them out and into
the coil. Connect the battery with the electric magnet. it will be a field
magnet now. Put the three-inch coil between the iron prongs. and take it out,
do it fast. repeat it, then you will have a steady light in the light bulb.
Now you and the field magnet are a generator. Suppose you had a wheel and many
coils around the wheel turning, then you would. be making all kinds of light.
Do not make the machine, I already have the application for patent in the
Patent Office. I made ten different machines to make magnetic currents, but I
found this combination between field magnets and coils the most efficient. Put
the coil in slowly and take it out slowly, then you will have no light. That
will show, to make magnetic currents, the time is important.

Put the six-inch long square rod on top of the two iron prongs, fit good so it
lies even. Connect the battery with electric magnet for a little while, now
disconnect the battery, connect the light bulb with the electric magnet the
same way it was connected with the battery, now pull off the six-inch long
bar, do it quickly, then you will see light in the bulb, connect the battery
up again with the electric magnet, put the bar across the iron prongs, hold
awhile, disconnect the battery. Now the electric magnet holds perpetual
motion. If not disturbed it will last indefinitely. I held it in this position
for six months, and when I pulled off the six-inch bar I got just as much
light out of it as I got in the first time. This experiment shows that if you
start the North and South Pole individual magnets in an orbit, then they will
never stop.

The hanging magnets that hang up and down, they show that there is motion
inside the bar. Hold the perpetual motion holder North Pole magnet or pole end
East and South Pole magnet terminal or pole end West, now raise it up slowly
to the South Pole hanging magnet, then you will see the South Pole hanging
magnet swinging South. Now put the perpetual motion holder under the North
Pole hanging magnet, raise up slowly, then you will see the North Pole
hanging magnet swinging North. This experiment shows without any doubt that
the North and South Pole individual magnets are running in the same direction
as those in the copper wire, which came out of the car battery, and in both
instances while the magnets are running ahead in whirling motion they used the
right-hand twist.

Get that Alnico magnet, and make it so you can turn it wound if possible more
than two thousand revolutions a minute. Connect the light bulb with the
perpetual motion holder, put it on the spinning Alnico magnet in the hole
between prongs and the square iron bar, now spin the Alnico magnet around and
see how much of the light you get. Now take the iron bar off, then you will
get more of the light. It shows that if it is closed. some of the magnets
which we in the iron prongs will run around in an orbit, and will not come
out, but when the orbit is broken then they will run in the coil, and the
result will be more light.

Put a paper box with plenty of Iron filings in it on the horizontally spinning
Alnico magnet, then you will see how the spinning magnet builds up ridges and
ditches. Now put the magnet so that it can be turned vertically. Spin the
magnet, then you will see the filings running against the motion and building
up ridges and ditches.  Put on finer filings, then there will be finer ridges
and ditches. Spin one way and then the other way, then you will have some
rough idea how magnets build up the matter.

You made magnetic currents in three different ways, but in principle they all
ware made exactly in the same way. Magnetic currents are made by
concentrating. then dividing and then shifting the existing North and South
Pole individual magnets from one place to another. Now I will illustrate how
my best machine is doing it. I will use only one coil, and one U shape
permanent magnet without using the winding that the machine uses to increase
the permanent magnet strength. If you had a permanent magnet that the coil you
use in the electric magnet would go in between the prongs of it, then that
would be good to demonstrate, but if you have not, then use the same one you
have.

Get an iron core the same dimensions as in the three-inch coil, but long
enough to go between the permanent magnet prongs. Wind the same number of
turns and connect with the light bulb. Fasten the U shape permanent magnet
very good, bend up, prongs down, North Pole North. South Pole South. Now push
the coil through the prongs from West to East. Do it fast, then there will be
light in the bulb, now push the coil and stop in middle, and then push again,
this time you will have two lights while the coil went through the magnet
prongs only once. You had two lights the first time also, but you did not
notice they came in quick succession, When you pushed the coil's middle up to
field magnet's middle the currents ran in one direction, and when you pushed
the coil away from the field magnet's middle, then the currents reversed, then
ran in the other direction. That is why you got two light flashes while the
coil passed through the field magnet only one time.

Here is the way in which the North and South Pole individual magnet currents
ran while you pushed the coil from West to East through the field magnet. Take
the core out of the coil, wind one layer of wire on the core and make it so
that the North side of the winding wire's end points East and South side of
the winding wire's end points West, When you pushed the coil to the middle of
the field magnet, the North Pole magnet current came out of the wire end that
is pointing East, and the South Pole magnet current came out of the wire end
that is pointing West, but when you pushed the coil away from the middle of
the field magnet the currents reversed, then North Pole magnet current came
out of the coil's wire end that is pointing West and South Pole magnet current
came out of the coil's wire end that is pointing East. With the same winding
if the North Pole field magnet had been southside, and South pole field magnet
northside, then the running of the currents would be reversed.

When currents reverse they reverse the magnet poles in the coil. Every time
when the coil is approaching the field magnets, the currents which are made in
the coil during that time are making magnet poles in the coil's core ends, the
same as those field magnet poles they are approaching, but during the time the
coil is receding those currents are making the coil's magnet poles opposite to
the field magnets they are receding from. While you have the small coil handy
I will tell more about magnets. Run South Pole magnet current in the wire end
that points West, and North Pole magnet current in the wire end that points
East. Now North end of the coil is South Pole and South end of the coil is
North Pole. Now run North Pole magnet current in West end of the wire, and
South Pole magnet in East end of the wire. This time the North end of the coil
will be North Pole, and South end of the coil the South Pole.

You made the one-inch long magnets with a single wire, but if you had the same
size of wire in a coil you now have and would put a bigger steel bar in the
coil then you would have a bigger and stronger magnet, but to make a stronger
magnet yet, you would have to wind more layers on top of the coil that you
have now. When you were making the small magnets with a single copper wire you
wasted too many North and South Pole individual magnets. You only got in the
steel wire very small part of the magnets that came out of the copper wire.
You are still wasting the North and South Pole magnets. You do not get one-
half of the magnets in the steel or iron bar from those which are in the coil.

To get more magnet out of a coil put the coil in steel or iron tube, then the
tube outside the coil will be a magnet the same as the coil's core, but the
magnet poles will be opposite. it means at the same coil end if the core end
is North Pole the tube end will be South Pole. In this way you will get almost
again as much magnet out of the coil and in the core and tube. You can do
better yet, join one end of the coil's core end with the same metal, joining
core with tube. make two holes in end of metal for the coil wire ends to go
out, fasten a ring on top, now you have the most effigy client electric magnet
for lifting purposes. It wastes no magnets that come from your battery or
dynamo.

Take the coil out of the electric magnet, run the currents in the coil, put a
hard steel bar one end to the coil's North Pole, hold awhile, take away, now
the bar is a permanent magnet. That end at coil's side is South Pole magnet,
and the other North Pole magnet. Now this permanent magnet can make other hard
steel bars in permanent magnets but every magnet that it makes will be a
weaker magnet than itself. The coil made this permanent magnet in the same way
that the permanent magnets are making other permanent magnets. Put this
permanent magnet in the coil's hole.  Reverse it. Put bar's North Pole end in
coil's South Pole end, run current in the coil for awhile, take the bar out,
now you have a stronger permanent magnet, but the poles are reversed. This
shows that the stronger magnet can change the weaker magnet.  When you were
pushing the coil through the U shaped magnet you got two flashes in the light
bulb with one passage through the U shape magnet, and I showed you from which
ends of coil's wire the currents came out while they made the flashes. Now I
will make so you can actually see that it is in the way I told you. Take the
light bulb off the coil, put the core in it, connect the coil with a loop that
would reach six feet East from the U shape magnet.

Keep the loop end a foot apart, stretch South side wire straight, make it so
it cannot move. Get those little hanging magnets which hang one end up, the
other down, hang the South Pole magnet on the loop wire, now push the coil
through the U shape magnet and watch the hanging magnet. First it will swing
South, then North.  Now hang North Pole magnet on the wire, watch again while
you are pushing the coil through the U shape magnet, this time first it will
swing North, then South, Hang both magnets, Watch again and you will see that
both magnets at the same time first they swing to their own side and then to
the other side. If the hanging magnets do not swing while you are pushing the
coil through the U shape magnet, then the U shape magnet is not strong enough.
The U shape magnet should be strong enough to lift twenty pounds.

You can put two magnets together or use electric magnet, and still better you
can put the coil in electric magnet, then you won't have to push it. Then you
can sit down and tap the battery and see the hanging magnets swinging. All
currents are made in the same way by filling the coil and iron core with North
and South Pole individual magnets and then giving enough time for the magnets
to get out and then start over again. If you want to use the electric magnet
be sure that the North Pole is in North side, and the South Pole in South
side, and put the coil in the prongs in the same way as it is now.

Now I will tell you what happened to the U shape magnet while you pushed the
coil through it from West to East. Set up the three-foot magnet so it can
turn, put the coil with core in it in the U shape magnet, now approach the
three-foot magnet's South Pole with the U shape magnet's South Pole. As soon
as the three-foot magnet begins to move you stop and mark the distance. Take
the coil away, approach again as soon as - the three-foot magnet begins to
move away, then stop and mark the distance, then you will see how much
strength the U shape magnet lost while you were pushing the coil in and
halfway out, of the U shape magnet. The U shape magnet was losing its strength
up to the time it began to break away from the iron core, but during the time
the U shape magnet broke away it regained its strength. The breaking away from
the iron core recharged the U shape magnet, then it became normal again and
ready for the next start. During the recharging the new supply of magnets came
from the air or the earth's magnetic field.

Now we see how the magnetic currents are made by the U shape magnet. You
already know that before the `coil got in between the U shape magnet prongs
those little individual magnets were running out of the U shape magnet prongs
in all directions, but as soon as the coil's core came in effective distance
from the U shape magnet's prongs then these little individual magnets began to
run in the core and coil and kept running until the core broke away from the U
shape magnet prongs. Now you see those little individual magnets ran out of
the U shape magnet and ran in the soft iron core, but the soft iron core never
held the magnets, it pushed them out. To prove it you put five or six thin
iron strips on edge, slant just so they will not flop over, now approach to
the ends of those strips with a magnet and you will see they flop over, hold
the strips a little loose by the ends. then they will spread out.

I think this is enough to show that the soft iron never held those magnets. It
pushed them out. As soon as those little individual magnets get pushed out of
the soft iron core then they run in the coil. When they run in the coil they
are in bulk form. The coil's part is to divide those little individual magnets
from bulk form in small paths. The coil is not necessary to make magnetic cur-
rents. Currents can be made with a single wire. The coil is nec- essary to
increase the amount and strength of the currents. The coil is similar to any
cell battery. One cell alone does not amount to anything. To be good, many
cells have to be in a battery. The same in a coil to be good many turns have
to be in a coil.

When the magnets that are in bulk form enter the coil then the coil divides
them in small paths. It is done in this way. When the bulk magnets enter the
coil they fill the coil's wire with North and South Pole individual magnets.
North Pole magnets pointing toward South Pole U shape magnet and South Pole
pointing toward North Pole U shape magnet. Now the wire in the coil is one
continuous magnet. One side of the wire is South Pole and the other North
Pole. Now we have those little North and South Pole individual magnets in the
wire, but they are not running in the way we want. They are running across the
wire. We want the magnets to run through the wire lengthwise, but there is
only one way to do it, we have to increase the number of those North and South
Pole individual magnets. To do it the coil will have to approach and enter the
U shape magnet, but when the coil reaches the middle of the U shape magnet the
limit is there so the running of the currents stop. In the core and the coil
there is plenty of those little magnets, but they stopped to run through the
wire length wise, now they run only across the coil's wire, to make the
magnets run in the wire lengthwise again the coil will have to get away from
the U shape magnet. As soon as the coil begins to move away from the U shape
magnet. then those little North and South Pole individual magnets begin to run
again through the wire length-wise, but in opposite direction until the
magnets in the iron core are gone.

I told you that the coil is a magnet during the time the currents are made.
now I will show you. Get a small paper box to go in between the prongs of the
U shape magnet, put iron filings in it. Wrap six-inch long soft iron wire with
paper. put the wire in box in iron filings, now put the box between the U
shape magnet prongs. Raise the wire up, then you will see filing strands
clinging to the insulated iron wire. Raise the wire up slowly, then the filing
strands will sag and fail, take the box out. put the wire in the filings
again, raise up and you will see that the wire is no magnet. but during the
time it was between the U shape magnet prongs it was a magnet. This shows that
during the time the coil moves through the U shape magnet the coil becomes a
magnet, but its function is double. Some individual North and South Pole
magnets run through the coil's wire crosswise, and some run through the coil's
wire lengthwise.

Maybe you think that it is not fair to use iron wire to demonstrate how
magnetic currents are made, but I can tell you that if I do not use iron core
in the coil I can make more of the magnetic currents with soft iron wire coil
than I can with copper wire coil, so you see it is perfectly good to use iron
wire to demonstrate how magnetic currents are made. You can do the same thing
with the copper wire in using iron filings, but only on a smaller scale.

You saw how the magnets are running through a wire crosswise. Now I will tell
you how they are running through the wire lengthwise. Before the magnets start
to run through the wire lengthwise they are lined up in a square across the
wire, one side of the wire is North Pole magnet side and the other side is
South Pole magnet side. When the coil begins to approach the middle of the U
shape magnet and the currents begin to run then the magnets which are in the
wire begin to slant, North Pole magnets pointing East the same as the coil's
wire end, where the North Pole magnet current came out and South Pole magnets
pointing West the same as the coil's wire end where the South Pole magnet cur-
rent came out. When the coil reaches the middle of the U shape magnet then the
currents stop to run. Now the North and South Pole magnets are pointing across
the wire again. When the coil begins to move away from the middle of the U
shape magnet and the currents begin to run then the magnets which are in the
wire begin to slant, but this time the North Pole magnets are pointing West
the same as the coil's wire end where the North Pole magnet current come out
and South Pole magnets pointing East the same as the coil's wire end where the
South Pole magnet current came out. When the coil moves out of the U shape
magnet's effective distance the currents running stop. This is the way the
alternating currents are made.

When the individual North and South pole magnets are running through a wire
lengthwise they are running in slant and whirling around while running ahead,
You can see the slant by watching the sparks when you are putting together and
pulling away soft iron wire ends which are connected to the battery by their
other ends. To see how the currents are running out of the coil's wire watch
those six one-inch long magnets which lie on the glass.

Put those magnets together with ends even, then let them loose, then you will
see that they will roll away and if the magnets be stronger then they will
roll away farther. This is the way the North and South Pole individual magnets
are running out of the coil's wire lengthwise. The reason the North and South
Pole individual magnets do not run across through the coil's wire as fast
out as they run in while the coil is between the U shape magnet, the coil's
wire is insulated, there is an air space around every wire and as it is known
that the dry air is the best obstruction for the magnets to go through and as
you know the coil is well insulated so the damp air does not get in. It is
well known that it is many times easier for the magnets to run in metal than
in air, now you see when the magnets run in the wire they hesitate to run out
of the wire across the same way as they came in, so more of the new magnets
are coming in the wire crosswise, then they can get out crosswise, so they get
pushed out through the wire lengthwise.  Now you know how the alternating
magnetic currents are made.

You have been wondering why alternating currents can run so far away from
their generators. One reason is between every time the currents start and stop
there is no pressure in the wire so the magnets from the air run in the wire
and when the run starts there already are magnets in the wire which do not
have to come from the generator, so the power line itself is a small generator
which assists the big generator to furnish the magnets for the currents to run
with. I have a generator that generates currents on a small scale from the air
without using any -magnets around it.

Another thing, you have been wondering how a U shape permanent magnet can keep
its normal strength indefinitely. You know the soft iron does not hold
magnets, but you already have one that holds it. It is the perpetual motion
holder. It illustrates the principle how permanent magnets are- made. All that
has to be done is to start the magnets to run in on orbit, then they will
never stop. Hard steel U shape magnets have a broken orbit, but under proper
conditions it is permanent. I think the structure of the metal is the answer.
I have two U shape magnets. They look alike, but one is a little harder than
the other. The harder one can lift three pounds more than the softer one. I
have been tempering the other steel magnets, and have noticed that the harder
the steel gets the smaller it becomes. That shows that the metal is more
packed and has less holes in it so the magnets cannot pass through it in full
speed, so they dam up in the prong ends. They come in faster than they can get
out. I think -the ability for the soft steel welding rod to hold magnets is in
the metal's fine structure.

The reason I call the results of North and South Pole magnet's functions
magnetic currents and not electric currents or electricity is the electricity
is connected too much with those non-existing electrons. If it had been called
magneticity then I would accept it.  Magneticity would indicate that it has a
magnetic base and so it would be all right.

As I said in the beginning, the North and South Pole magnets they are the
cosmic force. They hold together this earth and everything on it, and they
hold together the moon, too. The moon's North end holds South Pole magnets the
same as the earth's North end. The moon's South end holds North Pole magnets
the same as the earth's South end. Those people who have been wondering
why the moon does not come down all they have to do is to give the moon one-
half of a turn so that the North end would be in South side, and South end in
the North side, and then the moon would come down. At present the earth and
the moon have like magnet poles in the same sides so their own magnet poles
keep themselves apart, but when the poles are reversed, then they will pull
together. Here is a good tip to the rocket people. Make the rocket's head
strong North Pole magnet, and the tail end strong South Pole magnet, and then
shut to on the moon's North end, then you will have better success.

North and South Pole magnets are not only holding together the earth and moon,
but they are turning the earth around on its axis. Those magnets which are
coming down from the sun they are hitting their own kind of magnets which are
circulating around the earth and they hit more on the East side than on the
West side, and that is what makes the earth turn around. North and South Pole
magnets make the lightning, in earth's North hemisphere the South Pole magnets
are going up and the North pole magnets are coming down in the same flash. In
the earth's South hemisphere the North Pole magnets are going up and the South
Pole magnets are coming down in the same flash. The North lights are caused
by the North and South Pole magnets passing in concentrated streams, but the
streams are not as much concentrated as they are in the lightning. The radio
waves are made by the North and South Pole magnets. Now about the magnet size.
You know sunlight can go through glass, paper and leaves, but it cannot go
through wood, rock and iron, but the magnets can go through everything. This
shows that each magnet is smaller than each particle of light.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------